The multiple tariff increases to date, ranging from 10% to 45%, affect approximately 16% of U.S. annual imports. This amounts to $396.4 billion of imports (2018 data), with Section 301 tariffs on U.S. imports from China accounting for more than 90% of the trade affected (Figure 1). While the Administration has taken some steps to reduce the scale of imports affected (i.e., by exempting Canada and Mexico from the steel and aluminum duties and excluding certain products), the general trend has been an escalation of tariff actions. For example, in May 2019, the Administration increased Section 301 tariffs on nearly $200 billion of imports from China (stage 3), from 15% to 25%, and in September, imposed new tariffs of 15% on an additional $126 billion in Chinese imports (stage 4A). Even in light of the newly signed U.S.-China “phase one” trade agreement, the majority of tariff increases remain in place (see below).