In autumn 2020, a six-week war in the South Caucasus reshaped the dynamics of a decades-oldconflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia. The dispute centers on the predominantly Armenian populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh (or Mountainous Karabakh, also known in Armenian as Artsakh) and surrounding territories internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. The war has resulted in Azerbaijani control overmuch of the territory it lost to Armenian and Nagorno Karabakh forces during previous fighting in the 1990s, including a portion of Nagorno-Karabakh and almost all of the surrounding territories. Armenians have retained control over the remaining territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, including the urban center of Stepanakert. A cease-fire agreement mediated by the Russian Federation introduced about 2,000 Russian troops into the conflict zone to serve as peacekeeping forces and to guarantee the security of a land corridor between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh.